No Easy Answers


Sunday, July 22, 2007

Paracha - Brief in Support of Invalidating Finding of CSRT

Source: http://www.scotusblog.com/movabletype/archives/ParachaOpening.pdf

Commentary at ScotusBlog: Opening brief in first DTA review

The opening pages of the brief contain a concise summary of the various GTMO detainee cases, including their present procedural posture.

The body of the brief lays out Paracha's fact pattern as well as some details of the legal process that has been available to him to challenge the finding that he is an enemy combatant - a "worst of the worst" in the cohort of terrorists.



     [ORAL ARGUMENT SCHEDULED FOR SEPTEMBER 17, 2007]

                                 NO. 06-1038


                IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
                FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT


                              Saifullah Paracha,
                                                             Petitioner,
                                       v.
                    Robert M. Gates, Secretary of Defense,
                                                             Respondent.


  ORIGINAL ACTION UNDER DETAINEE TREATMENT ACT OF 2005


      BRIEF FOR PETITIONER SUPPORTING INVALIDATION
 OF FINAL DECISION OF COMBATANT STATUS REVIEW TRIBUNAL



  GAILLARD T. HUNT                      DAVID H. REMES
  1409 Gleason Street                   JASON M. KNOTT
  Silver Spring, MD 20902               BRENT T. STARKS
                                        ENRIQUE ARMIJO
  CLIVE STAFFORD SMITH                  COVINGTON & BURLING LLP
  ZACHARY KATZNELSON                    1201 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
  JUSTICE IN EXILE                      Washington, DC 20004-2401
  636 Baronne Street                    202-662-6000
  New Orleans, LA 70113
  504-558-9867

                            Attorneys for Petitioner

July 17, 2007
   CERTIFICATE AS TO PARTIES, RULINGS, AND RELATED CASES

      A.     Parties and Amici
      Petitioner is Saifullah Paracha.

      Respondent is Robert M. Gates, Secretary of Defense.

      No persons have appeared as amici curiae.

      B.     Rulings Under Review
      Final decision of Combatant Status Review Tribunal ("CSRT") Panel 24,

dated December 8, 2004, that Petitioner is properly designated as an enemy com-

batant. (App. 1.)

      Order of Director, CSRTs, dated December 21, 2004, concurring in the deci-

sion of the CSRT and certifying that decision is final. (App. 68.)

      C.     Related Cases
      This case has not previously been before this Court other than for disposition

of procedural motions. The cases described below present the same issues as, or

issues similar to, the issues in this case, and the government is a party to all of the

cases. Petitioner is a party only in this case and the case described in paragraph 1.

      Petitioner's habeas action. On November 17, 2004, Petitioner filed a peti-

tion for a writ of habeas corpus in the U.S. District Court for the District of Co-

lumbia. Paracha v. Bush, No. 1-04-civ.-02022 (PLF) (D.D.C.). Petitioner and his

wife filed an amended petition on December 10, 2004. Petitioner and his wife

filed two appeals from orders of the District Court, D.C. Cir. 05-5194 and 05-5333.

                                         - ii -
On April 9, 2007, a panel of this Court remanded the appeals to the district court

with instructions to dismiss the petitions for lack of jurisdiction based on the panel

decision in Boumediene v. Bush, 476 F.3d 981 (D.C. Cir. 2007), cert. granted,

2007 WL 1854132 (U.S. June 29, 2007). Petitioner and his wife expect to file a

petition for certiorari in the Supreme Court seeking review of the panel's order of

April 9, 2007. Petitioner's certiorari petition is due August 7, 2007.

      Other Detainee Habeas Actions. Numerous other Guantánamo detainees

have filed habeas corpus actions in U.S. District Court for the District of Colum-

bia. Judge Richard Leon granted the government's motion to dismiss two of these

actions, Khalid v. Bush, 355 F. Supp. 2d 311 (D.D.C. 2005), and Senior Judge

Joyce Hens Green denied in material part the government's motion to dismiss ele-

ven other habeas actions, In re Guantánamo Detainee Cases, 355 F. Supp. 2d 443

(D.D.C. 2005). A divided panel of this Court dismissed the actions for want of ju-

risdiction under the Military Commissions Act of 2006 ("MCA") in Boumediene,

now under review in the Supreme Court. An original habeas action raising similar

issues is pending in the Supreme Court, In re Ali, No. 06-1194 (filed Mar. 6, 2007).

      Detainee DTA Actions. Numerous other Guantánamo detainees have filed

original actions under the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 ("DTA"). In Bismullah

v. Gates, No. 06-1197, and Parhat v. Gates, No. 06-1397, a panel of this Court will




                                        - iii -
address DTA scope-of-review and protective-order issues. The panel heard argu-

ment on May 15, 2007.

      Hamdan. The Guantánamo detainee in this habeas action challenges the

constitutionality of the military commissions established by the MCA and MCA

provisions (1) purporting to eliminate habeas actions by Guantánamo detainees and

claims by such detainees under the Geneva Conventions, and (2) limiting the de-

tainees to review under the DTA. The district court dismissed the petitioner's ac-

tion for lack of jurisdiction under the MCA, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 464 F. Supp. 2d

9 (D.D.C. 2006). Pending in this Court is the petitioner's suggestion of initial en

banc hearing, filed June 6, 2007, Hamdan v. Gates, Case No. 07-5042 (D.C. Cir.).

Pending in the Supreme Court are petitioner's petition for certiorari before judg-

ment, and motions aimed at securing a grant of the petition, filed on July 9, 2007,

Hamdan v. Gates, Case No. 07-15 (S. Ct.).

      Al-Marri. The detainee in this habeas action is a permanent lawful resident

alien who challenges his detention as an enemy combatant in the Consolidated Na-

val Brig in South Carolina. The district court dismissed the petitioner's action, Al-

Marri ex rel. Berman v. Wright, 443 F. Supp. 2d 774 (D.S.C. 2006), and a divided

panel of the Fourth Circuit reversed, Al-Marri v. Wright, 481 F.3d 160 (4th Cir.

2007). The government filed a suggestion of en banc rehearing on June 27, 2007.




                                        - iv -
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATE AS TO PARTIES, RULINGS, AND RELATED CASES ............ ii
       A.      Parties and Amici ...................................................................................... ii
       B.      Rulings Under Review.............................................................................. ii
       C.      Related Cases ............................................................................................ ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................................v
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES ................................................................................. viii
GLOSSARY........................................................................................................... xiii
JURISDICTIONAL STATEMENT ..........................................................................1
CONSTITUTIONAL, STATUTORY, AND TREATY PROVISIONS...................1
STATEMENT OF THE ISSUES PRESENTED FOR REVIEW .............................1
STATEMENT OF FACTS ........................................................................................2
       D.      Introduction................................................................................................2
       E.      Petitioner ....................................................................................................3
       F.      Petitioner's CSRT Hearing. .......................................................................7
       G.      Judicial Proceedings.................................................................................14
SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ...............................................................................17
STANDARD OF REVIEW .....................................................................................19
   I. THE MCA'S ELIMINATION OF HABEAS JURISDICTION VIOLATES
   THE SUSPENSION CLAUSE. ...........................................................................20
       A.      Petitioner Has Standing To Claim Suspension Clause Violations. .........20
            1. As a lawful permanent resident of the United States, Petitioner has
            rights protected by the Suspension Clause. .................................................20
               a)      Petitioner is a lawful permanent resident.........................................20
               b) Lawful permanent residents are protected by habeas corpus and the
               Due Process Clause..................................................................................22
            2. Even if not an LPR, Petitioner has rights protected by the Suspension
            Clause...........................................................................................................24
               a) Habeas has historically been available to all who are not citizens of
               a country at war with the United States. ..................................................24


                                                            -v-
             b) Habeas has historically been available at places within a nation's
             exclusive control. .....................................................................................26
             c) The Suspension Clause is not an individual right but instead limits
             government action....................................................................................27
             d) Guantánamo detainees have fundamental rights that the government
             cannot deny. .............................................................................................28
   B. Under the Government's Construction of DTA § 1005(e)(2), Congress
   Has Unlawfully Suspended Habeas Without Providing An Adequate
   Substitute..........................................................................................................29
        1.       CSRT proceedings are an inadequate substitute for habeas. ..............29
        2.       DTA Review is an inadequate substitute for habeas...........................32
II. THE MCA'S ELIMINATION OF GENEVA CONVENTIONS CLAIMS
VIOLATES THE SUSPENSION CLAUSE AND EX PARTE KLEIN. .............33
   A. Stripping Habeas Courts of the Power to Consider Valid Legal Claims
   Related to the Legality of Detention Violates the Suspension Clause. ...........33
   B. Section 5(a)'s Limitation on the Applicable Law Courts May Consider in
   Petitioner's Pending Habeas Case Violates Klein. ..........................................35
III. THE MCA AND DTA VIOLATE THE BILL OF ATTAINDER
CLAUSE AND THE FIFTH AMENDMENT'S GUARANTEE OF EQUAL
PROTECTION.....................................................................................................36
   A.        The MCA and DTA Are Classic Bills of Attainder. ...............................36
   B. The MCA and DTA As Construed by the Government Violate Equal
   Protection. ........................................................................................................39
IV.  THE GOVERNMENT'S INDEFINITE IMPRISONMENT OF
PARACHA, A LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENT ABDUCTED FROM
THAILAND, AS AN ENEMY COMBATANT VIOLATES THE AUMF. ......41
V. THE PROCEDURES UNDER WHICH PARACHA'S CSRT WAS
CONDUCTED DID NOT COMPLY WITH THE DTA'S REQUIRED
STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES.................................................................44
   A. Paracha's CSRT Was Not Conducted Under the Standards That the DTA
   Contemplates and Was Therefore Invalid Per Se. ...........................................44
   B.        Paracha's CSRT Failed to Provide Safeguards Required by the DTA. ..44




                                                        - vi -
      C. The CSRT Procedures As Applied Do Not Provide A Basis For
      Determining Under the DTA Whether the CSRT's Decision Was Supported
      By A Preponderance Of The Evidence............................................................45
      D. The CSRT Procedures As Applied Violated The DTA's Requirement
      That A Detainee Be Given An Opportunity To Rebut The Presumption In
      Favor Of The Government's Evidence............................................................46
   VI.  PARACHA'S CSRT WAS INVALID BECAUSE IT FAILED TO
   COMPLY WITH THE WOLFOWITZ ORDER, CSRT PROCEDURES AND
   THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES...................48
      A. Paracha Did Not Meet the Definition of Enemy Combatant in the
      Wolfowitz Order. .............................................................................................49
      B. The CSRT and Its Staff Failed to Comply with the CSRT Procedures,
      Resulting in a Finding that Paracha Was an Enemy Combatant Based on
      Evidence That Likely Was Obtained by Torture or Coercion.........................50
CONCLUSION........................................................................................................56




                                                      - vii -
                                TABLE OF AUTHORITIES1

                                                 CASES

    Al-Marri ex rel. Berman v. Wright, 443 F. Supp. 2d 774
       (D.S.C. 2006) .............................................................................................7

    Al-Marri v. Wright, 481 F.3d 160 (4th Cir. 2007)...........................................7

    Al Odah v. United States, 321 F. 3d 1134 (D.C. Cir. 2003)............................7

    Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497 (1954) ........................................................45

    Boumediene v. Bush, 476 F.3d 981 (D.C. Cir. 2007)................1, 2, 23, 30, 33

    Campos v. INS, 961 F.2d 309 (1st Cir. 1992)................................................29

    Carafas v. LaVallee, 391 U.S. 234 (1968) ....................................................46

    Chavez-Ramirez v. INS, 792 F.2d 932 (9th Cir. 1986)..................................27

    Clark v. Jeter, 486 U.S. 456 (1988) ..............................................................45

    Concrete Pipe & Prods. v. Constr. Laborers Pension Trust,
      508 U.S. 602 (1993) ...........................................................................36, 37

    Cook v. United States, 288 U.S. 102 (1933)..................................................40

    Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004).........................................37, 38

    Cummings v. Missouri, 71 U.S. 277 (1866) ......................................42, 43, 44

    Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244 (1901) ......................................................34

    Foretich v. United States, 351 F.3d 1198 (D.C. Cir. 2003) ....................42, 43

    Graham v. Richardson, 403 U.S. 365 (1971)................................................46
1
    Cases primarily relied upon are marked with asterisks.


                                                  - viii -
Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U.S. 12 (1956) ...........................................................45

Groppi v. Leslie, 404 U.S. 496 (1971) ..........................................................35

In re Guantánamo Detainee Cases,
    355 F. Supp. 2d 433 (D.D.C. 2005) ...............................................2, 52, 54

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 126 S. Ct. 2749 (2006) .............................22, 40, 45, 48

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 464 F. Supp. 2d 9
  (D.D.C. 2006) .............................................................................................3

*Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004)......... 25, 35, 36, 46, 47, 48, 50, 56

Harris v. Nelson, 394 U.S. 286 (1969)..............................................25, 36, 38

Hawk v. Olson, 326 U.S. 271 (1945).............................................................25

Hodges v. Humkin, 80 Eng. Rep. 1015 (1613)..............................................34

*INS v. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. 289 (2001) ..........................................31, 33, 39, 40

Jean-Baptiste v. Reno, 144 F.3d 212 (2d Cir. 1998) .....................................29

Khalid v. Bush, 355 F. Supp. 2d 311 (D.D.C. 2005).......................................2

King v. Schiever, 97 Eng. Rep. 551 (K.B. 1759)...........................................31

Kwong Hai Chew v. Colding, 344 U.S. 590 (1953) ......................................27

Lynce v. Mathis, 519 U.S. 433 (1997) ...........................................................44

*Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2 (1866) ......................................................31, 47

Murray v. The Schooner Charming Betsy, 6 U.S.
  (2 Cranch) 64 (1804) ................................................................................51

Plaut v. Spendthrift Farm, 514 U.S. 211 (1995) ...........................................41



                                              - ix -
Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982) ...............................................................29

Preiser v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S. 475 (1973) ...................................................36

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 127 S. Ct. 2749 (2006) .........................................48, 49

Rasul v. Bush, 215 F. Supp. 2d 55 (D.D.C. 2002)...........................................7

*Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466 (2004) ........................... 7, 8, 31, 32, 33, 34, 45

*Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1 (1957) ...................................................30, 34, 35

Rex v. Mitter, 1 Indian Dec. 210 (1775) ........................................................32

Rex v. Turlington, 97 Eng. Rep. 741 (1761)..................................................34

Saint Fort v. Ashcroft, 329 F.3d 191 (1st Cir. 2003)...............................29, 40

Selective Service System, 468 U.S. at 852 .....................................................43

Service v. Dulles, 354 U.S. 363 (1957) .........................................................56

Shaughnessy v. United States
   ex rel. Mezei, 345 U.S. 206 (1953)...........................................................27

*Singh v. Reno, 113 F.3d 1512 (9th Cir. 1997).......................................27, 29

Sommersett v. Stewart, 20 How. St. Tr. 1 (K.B. 1772) .................................31

*Swain v. Pressley, 430 U.S. 372 (1977) ......................................................35

Tineo v. Ashcroft, 350 F.3d 382 (3d Cir. 2003).............................................29

United States ex rel. Accardi v. Shaughnessy,
  347 U.S. 260 (1954) ...........................................................................56, 57

United States v. Brown, 381 U.S. 437 (1965) .........................................42, 44

United States v. Grintjes, 237 F.3d 876 (7th Cir. 2001)................................53



                                            -x-
*United States v. Klein, 80 U.S. (13 Wall.) 128 (1872)................................41

United States v. Lovett, 328 U.S. 303 (1946) ................................................42

United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez, 494 U.S. 259 (1990) ......................29, 34

United States v. Villato, 2 U.S. 370 (C.C. Pa. 1797).....................................31

Wang v. Ashcroft, 320 F.3d 130 (2d Cir. 2003) ............................................40

Ex parte Watkins, 28 U.S. 193 (1830)...........................................................33

Woodby v. INS, 385 U.S. 276 (1996) ............................................................27

Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356 (1886) ...............................................29, 46

Zadvydas v. Davis, 533 U.S. 678 (2001).................................................28, 44

                           STATUTES AND TREATIES

U.S. Const. Art. I. Sec. 9, Cl. 2......................................................................35

U.S. Const. Amdt. 5.......................................................................................33

8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(20) ..................................................................................27

8 U.S.C. § 1227..............................................................................................27

28 U.S.C. § 1441............................................................................................29

28 U.S.C. § 2241..................................................................................7, 40, 45

28 U.S.C. § 1350............................................................................................62

50 U.S.C. § 21 ...............................................................................................31

Authorization for Use of Military Force,
  Pub. L. No. 107-40, 115 Stat. 224 (2001) ................................................47

Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-148,

                                               - xi -
    119 Stat. 2680 (2005) ....................................................................... passim

Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. L. No. 109-366,
  120 Stat. 2600 (2006) ....................................................................... passim

Fed. R. App. P. 32(a)(7)(C) ...........................................................................64

Geneva Convention (III) Relative to the Treatment of
  Prisoners of War, Aug. 12, 1949, [1955] 6 U.S.T. 3316..........1, 48, 49, 62

Geneva Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of
  Civilian Persons in Time of War, Aug. 12, 1949,
  [1956] 6 U.S.T. 3516, 75 U.N.T.S. 287 ...................................1, 48, 49, 62

U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or
  Degrading Treatment or Punishment, opened for signature
  Dec. 10, 1984, G.A. Res. 39146, Annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp.
  No. 51, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984) ..........................................................62

                                  MISCELLANEOUS

Headquarters, Dep't of the Army, FM 2-22.3, Human Intelligence
  Collector Operations (September 2006) ..................................................59

Henry M. Hart, Jr., The Power of Congress to Limit the Jurisdiction
  of Federal Courts: An Exercise in Dialectic, 66 Harv. L. Rev.
  1362 (1953)...............................................................................................41

Jane Mayer, The Hidden Power, The New Yorker (Jul. 3, 2006)...................6

Mark Denbeaux and Joshua Denbeaux, No-Hearing Hearings ......................9

Mark Denbeaux, et al., Report on Guantnamo Detainees: A Profile
  of 517 Detainees Through Department of Defense Data.........................15

Gordon England, Implementation of Combatant Status Review
  Tribunal Procedures for Enemy Combatants Detained at U.S.
  Naval Base Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (Jul. 29, 2004) ...................... passim




                                              - xii -
       Paul Wolfowitz, Order Establishing Combatant Status Review
          Tribunal (July 7, 2004)..................................................................... passim


                                            GLOSSARY
App.           Appendix

AUMF           Authorization for Use of Military Force, Pub. L. No. 107-40, 115 Stat.
               224 (2001)

CSRT           Combatant Status Review Tribunal

DTA            Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-148, 119 Stat. 2680
               (2005)

LPR            Lawful permanent resident

MCA            Military Commissions Act of 2006, Pub. L. No. 109-366, 120 Stat.
               2600 (2006)
PR             Personal Representative




                                                 - xiii -
                      JURISDICTIONAL STATEMENT
      Insofar as Rule 28(a)(4)(A) may be applicable, the "subject-matter jurisdic-

tion" of the CSRT and that of the Director, CSRT, rests on an order of the Deputy

Secretary of Defense dated July 7, 2004. The Order cites no statutory authority.

This Court has jurisdiction under DTA § 1005(e)(2).

     CONSTITUTIONAL, STATUTORY, AND TREATY PROVISIONS
      The addendum contains pertinent portions of the U.S. Constitution; the

DTA; the MCA; the AUMF; Geneva Conventions (III) and (IV) Relative to the

Treatment of Prisoners of War, art. 3 (Common Article 3); and U.N. Convention

Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

           STATEMENT OF THE ISSUES PRESENTED FOR REVIEW
      1.     Whether the government must provide habeas relief or an equivalent

remedy before it may detain Saifullah Paracha, a lawful permanent resident of the

United States, indefinitely at the U.S. Naval Station Guantánamo Bay as an enemy

combatant.

      2.     Whether precluding Paracha from raising claims under the Geneva

Conventions in this action would violate the Suspension Clause and the doctrine of

Ex parte Klein, which forbids the courts from ignoring applicable laws.

      3.     Whether Paracha's CSRT, conducted before Respondent or his prede-

cessor adopted the standards and procedures required by the DTA, violated the
Constitution and laws of the United States and the standards and procedures re-

quired by the DTA.

      4.    Whether Paracha's CSRT violated the Constitution and laws of the

United States as well as procedures under which it was conducted because the

CSRT staff failed to collect all relevant evidence and submit exculpatory evidence,

and because the CSRT failed to review the reliability of secret hearsay evidence

used against Paracha which in all likelihood was obtained by torture or coercion.

                           STATEMENT OF FACTS

      D.    Introduction

      In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terror attacks, the United States took

into custody thousands of foreign nationals all over the world. Beginning in Janu-

ary 2002, the U.S. transported more than 800 of these foreign nationals to deten-

tion facilities at U.S. Naval Station Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. About 360 detainees

are held there today. The United States kidnapped Petitioner, Saifullah Paracha, in

Bangkok, Thailand, in July 2003; spirited him from Bangkok to prisons in Af-

ghanistan; and finally brought him to Guantánamo in September 2004.

      Virtually all of the Guantánamo detainees, including Paracha, are held based

on their designation by the government as "enemy combatants." But contrary to

repeated statements by high government officials that the detainees are "the worst

of the worst" and "vicious killers," the CIA in August 2002 concluded that most of



                                       -2-
the Guantánamo detainees "didn't belong there."2 In January 2005, Major General

Jay Hood, then commander at the prison, admitted that "sometimes we just didn't

get the right folks," and that these "folks" were still in Guantánamo because

"[n]obody wants to be the one to sign the release papers. . . . There's no muscle in

the system."3 There was enough "muscle in the system," however, to designate

nearly 500 of the 535 detainees who had CSRT hearings as "enemy combatants."4

      E.     Petitioner
      Saifullah Paracha, nearly 60, is a citizen of Pakistan.5 He suffers from heart

disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, skin disorder, and gout.6

      In 1971, Paracha came to the United States, where he lived in Queens and

attended the New York Institute of Technology.7 In 1980, Paracha was granted a

permanent resident visa ­ known as a "green card" ­ which entitled him to live in

the United States permanently.8 While in the United States, Paracha established

Third World Broadcasting, a weekly 90-minute program on WNJU, New Jersey

2
       Jane Mayer, The Hidden Power 44, The New Yorker (July 3, 2006).
3
       Christopher Cooper, Detention Plan: In Guantanamo, Prisoners Languish in
a Sea of Red Tape, Wall Street Journal (Jan. 26, 2005).
4
       Status of All Guantanamo Detainees Reviewed; 38 To Be Released (Mar. 31,
2005), available at http://usinfo.state.gov/dhr/Archive/2005/Apr/01-23233.html.
5
       CSRT Decision Report Exhibit D-b at 1, App. 57.
6
       Saifullah Aff. (Dec. 8, 2004), App.57.
7
       Pet'r's Ans. to Resps.' Mot. to Dismiss and for J. as a Matter of Law, Ex. 1
("Aff. of Farhat Paracha") ¶¶ 2, 4, Paracha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF) (D.D.C.
filed Feb. 9, 2005), App. 69; CSRT Decision Report Exhibit D-b at 1, App. 57.
8
       Aff. of Farhat Paracha Ex. A, App. 71.


                                        -3-
that broadcast Pakistani television programs in Urdu for the local Pakistani com-

munity.9 Paracha also bought Globe Travel Services (Pakistan) Ltd., a New York

corporation located at Rockefeller Center, and established Sana Travel, Inc., lo-

cated on Fifth Avenue, in New York. The travel agencies facilitated travel be-

tween the United States and Pakistan.10

      In 1977, Paracha's wife, Farhat, who is also a citizen of Pakistan, came to

the United States, where she earned a master's degree at NYU and met Paracha;

the couple married in 1979 and have four children.11 Paracha's wife also holds a

green card,12 as do his four children.13 Four of Paracha's brothers and sisters live

in the United States; two hold green cards, and two are naturalized citizens; an-

other with a green card died recently.14 Paracha also has many nieces and nephews

living in the United States who are American citizens by birth or naturalization.15




9
      Aff. of Saifullah Paracha (Jul. 7, 2007), App. 83; Summarized Sworn De-
tainee Statement, CSRT Panel 24 (Dec. 8, 2004) ("Summarized Paracha Satte-
ment"), App. 10-11, 14.
10
      Id., App. 83-84.
11
      Id., App. 83. Aff. of Farhat Parach, App. 69.
12
      Id., Ex. B, App.72.
13
      Aff. of Saifullah Paracha, App. 83.
14
      Pet'r's Ans. to Resps.' Mot. to Dismiss and for J. as a Matter of Law, Ex. 4
("Aff. of Mohammad Paracha") ¶¶ 2, 4, Paracha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF)
(D.D.C. filed Feb. 9, 2005), App. 76.
15
      Aff. of Mohammad Paracha ¶¶ 4-7, App. 76-77.


                                          -4-
According to a nephew's sworn statement, "in terms of family connections, Saiful-

lah Paracha is as much or more American than Pakistani."16

      In 1986, Paracha moved back to Pakistan with his family.17 Paracha re-

turned to Pakistan to oversee the Pakistani operations of his U.S. travel agencies.18

Thereafter, Paracha and Charles Anteby, an American partner, established an ex-

port-import business, which did business under the name of Chanco Buying

Agents in the United States and International Merchandise (Pvt.) Ltd. in Pakistan.19

The business acted as a buying agent in Pakistan for American retailers, such as

Wal-Mart and K-Mart, placing orders for garments and other merchandise made in

Pakistan.20 Paracha oversaw factory operations in Pakistan; Anteby lined up buy-

ers in the United States.21 While in Pakistan, Paracha also set up a television pro-

duction company, Universal Broadcasting. The company produced plays and pro-

grams designed to minimize hostilities caused by religious antagonism.22



16
       Id. ¶ 8, App. 77.
17
       Aff. of Farhat Paracha ¶ 5, App. 70.
18
       Aff. of Saifullah Paracha, App. 83-84.
19
       Summarized Paracha Statement, App. 13; Pet'r's Ans. to Resps.' Mot. to
Dismiss and for J. as a Matter of Law, Ex. 2 ("Aff. of Syed Abdul Mahasin") ¶¶ 3-
8, Paracha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF) (D.D.C. filed Feb. 9, 2005), App. 73-75;
Aff. of Saifullah Paracha ¶ 7, App. 84.
20
       Summarized Paracha Statement, App. 13; Aff. of Syed Abdul Mahasin ¶¶ 4-
7, App. 74; Aff. of Saifullah Paracha ¶ 7, App. 84.
21
       Aff. of Saifullah Paracha ¶ 7, App. 84.
22
       CSRT Decision Report Exhibit R-3 at 3, App. 26.


                                        -5-
      Between 1986 and 1999, Paracha visited the United States about once a year

with his wife to superintend his business interests here and visit his brothers and

sisters, their children, and other relatives.23 In 1995 and 1996, the couple lived

with relatives in Connecticut and New York while Paracha's wife underwent

medical treatment.24 On each of their visits to the United States, Paracha and his

wife entered on their permanent resident visas.25 Paracha and his wife intend to

spend their retirement in the United States, close to their large extended family.

      In July 2003, Paracha traveled to Bangkok to meet with individuals he had

been led to believe were buyers from K-Mart.26 On his arrival, Paracha was

seized, blindfolded, hand-cuffed, leg-cuffed, and thrown into a waiting car.27 He

was then transported to the American military base at Bagram, Afghanistan.

There, Paracha was forced to endure solitary confinement for fifteen months "un-

der extremely bad conditions." Then, in September 2004, Paracha was transferred

to Guantánamo. Since his arrival, he has been in solitary confinement.28 The gov-


23
       Aff. of Farhat Paracha ¶ 6, App. 70.
24
       Aff. of Farhat Paracha ¶ 8, App. 70; see also Pet'r's Ans. to Resps.' Mot. to
Dismiss and for J. as a Matter of Law, Ex. 3 ("Aff. of Maria Khan") ¶¶ 1-3, Para-
cha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF) (D.D.C. filed Feb. 9, 2005), App. 78.
25
       Aff. of Farhat Paracha ¶ 6, App. 70.
26
       Pet'r's Mot. for TRO. or Prelim. Inj., Ex. 1 ("Aff. of G.T. Hunt") ¶ 1, Para-
cha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF) (D.D.C. filed Nov. 17, 2004), App. 35.
27
       CSRT Procedures Enclosure (3), App. 6; CSRT Decision Report Exhibit D-
b at 1, App. 57; Saifullah Aff. (Dec. 8, 2007), App. 58.
28
       Id.


                                        -6-
ernment refused to acknowledge to Paracha's lawyer in the United States that

Paracha was being held at Guantánamo until November 2004.29

      F.     Petitioner's CSRT Hearing.

      On November 26, 2004, Combatant Status Review Tribunal (CSRT) Panel

24 was convened to determine whether Paracha was an "enemy combatant."30 For

purposes of the CSRT proceedings, an "enemy combatant" was defined as "an in-

dividual who was part of or supporting Taliban or al Qaeda forces, or associated

forces that are engaged in hostilities against the United States or its coalition part-

ners." Id.31 CSRT rules characterize CSRT proceedings as "non-adversarial."32

Inasmuch as the CSRT rules make it impossible for a detainee to rebut the gov-

ernment's allegations against him and otherwise defend himself, the government's

characterization of the CSRT proceedings as "non-adversarial" is all too apt.




29
       Letters from G.T. Hunt to Rear Adm. McGarrah (Oct. 21, 2004 and Oct. 26,
2004), App. 39-40.
30
       CSRT Decision Report Cover Sheet, App. 1.30 Under the Deputy Secre-
tary's order ("Wolfowitz Order"), a CSRT was to be a panel composed of three
military officers that would review a detainee's status as an "enemy combatant."
Id. § a. T
31
       Paul Wolfowitz, Order Establishing Combatant Status Review Tribunal (Ju-
ly 7, 2004) ("Wolfowitz Order"), www.defenselink.mil/news/Jul2004/d20040707
review.pdf.
32
       CSRT Procedures Enclosure (1) § B ("CSRT Process").


                                         -7-
      The CSRT rules deny detainees counsel or any other advocate.33 Instead, the

rules provide a Personal Representative to "assist the detainee."34 The PR is not an

advocate for the detainee; the detainee's communications with the PR are not con-

fidential; and the PR may disclose anything Paracha told him to the CSRT.35 Para-

cha was assigned a PR, who met with him on December 2, 2004.36 During the

meeting, which occurred six days before the CSRT hearing, the PR read the gov-

ernment's allegations to Paracha and explained her limited role.37

      The government rested its claim that Paracha was properly designated as an

"enemy combatant" on twelve allegations:

      3.a. The Detainee supported the Taliban and al Qaida against the United
      Statement and its coalition partners.
      3.a-1. The Detainee was involved in an al Qaida plan to smuggle explosives
      into the United States.
      3.a-2. The Detainee "held for safekeeping" large amounts pf al Quaida
      money given to him by known al Quaida operatives.
      3.a-3. The Detainee, at the request of an al Quida operative, researched off-
      shore companies for investment possibilities.
      3.a-4. The Detainee associated with known high-level al Quaida operatives.


33
      CSRT Procedures Enclosure (3) § D; see also Mark Denbeaux and Joshua
Denbeaux, No-Hearing Hearings at 15, available at http://law.shu.edu/news/fi-
nal_no_hearing_hearings_report.pdf.
34
      CSRT Process § C.2-5.
35
      Id.; CSRT Procedures Enclosure (3) § D.
36
      CSRT Decision Report Exhibit D-a, App. 56.
37
      Id.; CSRT Procedures Enclosure (3) § D; Aff. of Saifullah Paracha (Dec. 8,
2004), App. 58.


                                        -8-
      3.a-5. The Detainee recommended to an al Qaida operative that nuclear
      weapons should be used against U.S. troops and suggested where these
      weapons might be obtained.
      3.a-6. The Detainee assisted al Quida in locating houses for al Quaida mem-
      bers and their families.
      3.a-7. The Detainee offered to al Quida his media facilities for Urdu transla-
      tion of extremist materials, including statements from Usama Bin Laden.
      3.a-8. Al Qaida invested money in a company owned by the Detainee.
      3.a-9. The Detainee had a discussion with a high level al Qauida facilitator
      about getting chemicals and explosives into a coalition partner's national
      boundaries.
      3.a-10. The Detainee met with Usama Bin Laden n 1999 and 2000, two
      times.
      3.a-11. The Detainee met with two high level al Qauida officials and knew
      they were "wanted men."38


      The evidence on which the government relied as support for these allega-

tions was classified.39 Paracha therefore did not know the basis for the govern-

ment`s allegations and could not rebut the evidence on which the government re-

lied.40 He could only respond to nine of the allegations (3.a, 3.a-1, 3.a-2, 3.a-3,

3.a-4, 3.a-5, 3.a-8, 3.a-9, 3.a-11) with general denials, equivalent to answers to a

complaint, before evidence has been offered. He was able to respond to three of


38
       CSRT Decision Report Exhibit R-1, App. 27-28.
39
       CSRT Decision Report Enclosure (1) at 2, App. 3.
40
       Paracha was given an "Unclassified Summary of Evidence," which his
CSRT later found was "not persuasive in that it provid[ed] conclusory statements
without supporting unclassified evidence." In this summary, the government as-
serted that Paracha "supported the Taliban and al Qaida against the United States
and its coalition partners."


                                       -9-
the allegations (3.a-6, 3.a-7, 3.a-10) more concretely, and his responses were plau-

sible on their face.41 But Paracha was in no position to obtain evidence to support

his responses, and he could not rebut the evidence on which the government relied

to counter his responses. Despite the fact that Paracha lacked counsel and had only

six days' notice of his CSRT hearing, Paracha prepared and submitted to his CSRT

a handwritten statement answering each of the government's allegations.42

      At his meeting with the PR, Paracha had requested that letters he had written

to U.S. officials before his capture be provided to the CSRT; Paracha believed the

letters showed he did not sympathize with terrorists.43 One was a letter to Presi-

dent Bush and other government officials proposing a solution to the festering

problems that led to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks44; the other was a letter

to the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan, expressing his willingness to address issues

relating to criminal charges against his son, Uzair.45 The CSRT deemed these let-

ters to be irrelevant and did not seek to obtain them, even though an FBI agent aat

Guantánamo evidently had a copy of Paracha's letter to President Bush.46 The

CSRT did allow the introduction into the record of affidavits attestion to Paracha's
41
      CSRT Hearing Tr., App. 8-9; id. at 10-14; Saifullah Aff. (Dec. 8, 2004),
App. 57-64; see also App. 3-4.
42
      CSRT Decision Report Exhibit D-b at 3-4, App. 59-60.
43
      Id., Enc. (1) at 2, App. 3.
44
      Aff. of Saifullah Paracha (Dec. 8, 2004), App. 61.
45
      CSRT Decision Report, App. 66, CSRT Hearing Tr., App. 7.
46
      CSRT Hearing Tr., App. 16.


                                       - 10 -
character and denying that Paracha could have supported terrorists in any way.47

But when Paracha asked what law applied to him and what law governed his

CSRT hearing, the Panel's head responded:

      Let me clarify that; you do understand that this is an administrative
      hearing, and this is not a legal proceeding. I do know you had some
      questions about the legality of your detention. That would be referred
      to other organizations of the governmnet, but you will be receiving
      mnore specific instructions shortly of how to bring your question to
      U.S. courts.48
In a further exchange shortly thereafter, Paracha renewed his request for clarifica-

tion of the legal basis for his detention:

      Detainee: Your honor, my question is [whether] your Executive Or-
      der [is] applicable around the earth.
      Tribunal President: It is a global war on terrorism.
      Detainee: I know sir, but you are not the master of the earth, sir.


      After Paracha finished testifying, he was escorted out of the room and the

CSRT reviewed the Government Evidence in closed session; the government se-

cret evidence was all secret hearsay evidence.49 The CSRT operated under a pre-

sumption that the Government Evidence (which does not include exculpatory evi-

dence) was "genuine and accurate," as required by the CSRT Procedures.50 Later


47
      App. 20-26, 39-40.
48
      CSRT Hearing Tr., App. 15.
49
      CSRT Decision Report Enclosure (3) at 12, App. 17.
50
      CSRT Procedures Enclosure (1) § 11.


                                         - 11 -
that same day, the CSRT determined, purportedly "by a preponderance of the evi-

dence," that Paracha was "affiliated with al Qaida" and therefore was properly de-

tained as an enemy combatant.51 The Recorder prepared a record of the proceed-

ings that did not include Government Information not presented to the Tribunal.52

The PR reviewed that record five days later and offered no comments.53 A week

after that, the Legal Advisor conducted a "legal sufficiency" review and found that

the CSRT had "substantially complied" with the Wolfowitz Order and CSRT Pro-

cedures.54 On December 21, Admiral McGarrah, as Director of the CSRTs, con-

curred in the CSRT's decision.55

      There is no indication that the government enabled the CSRT to assess the

quality of the evidence against Paracha. Was evidence obtained by coercion or tor-

ture or through proffered blandishments?       Was the evidence obtained from a

trusted source? Did the source have a selfish motive for incriminating the ac-

cused? How could the CSRT's determinations be meaningful if it had to assume to


51
       CSRT Decision Report Cover Sheet, App. 1.
52
       CSRT Procedures Enclosure (2) § C.8. The Recorder is a commissioned of-
ficer with TOP SECRET security clearance, who was to gather and present to the
CSRT panel "all relevant evidence." CSRT Process § C.2.
53
       CSRT Decision Report Enclosure (5), App. 64.
54
       Legal Advisor, Legal Sufficiency Review of Combatant Status Review Tribu-
nal for Detainee ISN # [redacted] (Dec. 20, 2004), at 1, App. 66. The Legal Advi-
sor was responsible for "reviewing each Tribunal decision for legal sufficiency."
CSRT Process § C.2.
55
       App. 68.


                                      - 12 -
be true every datum presented to it by the government? Raw intelligence is worth-

less intelligence. The adage "garbage in, garbage out" has special resonance here.

      In addition, the CSRT also did not have before it exculpatory statements

made in a criminal case involving Paracha's son, Uzair. In that case, the govern-

ment submitted unclassified summaries of expected testimony by Majid Khan and

Ammar al Baluchi. The CSRT asked Saifullah Paracha about those individuals

during his testimony.56 At the time of Paracha's CSRT, Khan and al Baluchi were

secretly held in CIA custody, where they likely were subjected to "harsh" interro-

gation measures.57 According to the summaries in Uzair's case, Khan stated that al

Qaeda did not invest in Saifullah Paracha's business ventures, contradicting one of

the key accusations made in Paracha's CSRT.58 Moreover, al Baluchi stated that

Paracha had never been "tasked by al Qaeda" to do anything for the group, that

Paracha did not know that "Uzair" (Khalid Sheikh Mohammad) was part of al

Qaeda, and that that Paracha had "no relation to" al Qaeda.59 On the contrary, ac-




56
      United States v. Paracha, No. 03-CR-1197 (SHS), 2006 WL 12768, at *11-
13 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 3, 2006); Unclassified Transcript of CSRT Proceeding.
57
      Brian Ross and Richard Esposito, CIA's Harsh Interrogation Techniques
Described, ABC News (Nov. 18, 2005), available at http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/
Investigation/story?id=1322866; see http://www.odni.gov/announcements/content/
DetaineeBiographies.pdf.
58
      App. 18.
59
      App. 19.


                                      - 13 -
cording to al Baluchi, Paracha was simply an unwitting businessman.60 The gov-

ernment did not provide these summaries to Paracha's CSRT, so they are not part

of the government's proposed record.

      G.    Judicial Proceedings
      On November 17, 2004, Paracha filed a habeas petition the U.S. District

Court for the District of Columbia.61 The petition alleged that Paracha was being

detained at Guantánamo in violation of the Constitution, laws, and treaties of the

United States. Citing Paracha's status as a lawful permanent resident of the United

States, the petition alleged that his detention violated his rights under the Due

Process Clause.

      The government moved to dismiss Paracha's petition. The government ar-

gued that Paracha could not claim the protections of the Due Process Clause be-

cause (the government claimed) Paracha had abandoned his lawful permanent resi-

dent status by moving to Pakistan in 1986 and remaining in residence there. The

government further argued that even if Paracha retained his lawful permanent resi-

dent status, his CSRT proceeding afforded him all the process he was due. Finally,

the government moved to stay Paracha's case pending this Court's resolution of




60
      Id.
61
      Paracha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF).


                                       - 14 -
certain threshold issues in Khalid/Boumediene v. Bush and Al Odah v. United

States.

      On March 23, 2005, the district court granted the stay motion. Paracha ap-

pealed the district court's stay order. (D.C. Cir. No. 05-5194.) Paracha argued,

among other things, that, because he is a lawful permanent resident, he stood on a

different footing than the detainees in Khalid/Boumediene and Al Odah, and this

Court's resolution of those cases would not control his action. Paracha also ap-

pealed an order of the district court denying his motion for release from solitary

confinement. (D.C. Cir. No. 05-5333.)

      While Paracha's appeals were pending, Congress enacted the DTA. The

DTA purported to strip the courts of jurisdiction over any habeas or other actions

made by aliens determined to be properly detained at Guantánamo as enemy com-

batants. In lieu of habeas actions, the DTA provided for judicial review of CSRT

determinations in the D.C. Circuit. On January 14, 2006, two weeks after the DTA

became law, Paracha brought this DTA action in this Court. On April 19, 2006,

the Court ordered that Paracha's appeals be held in abeyance pending the resolu-

tion of the Khalid/Boumediene and Al Odah appeals.

      On June 29, 2006, the Supreme Court held in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld that the

jurisdiction-stripping provision of the DTA did not apply to cases (like Paracha's)

that were pending on the date of enactment. 126 S. Ct. 2749, 2762-69 (2006). The



                                      - 15 -
Court also found that Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions was judicially enforce-

able case even though al Qaeda is not a signatory to the Conventions. Id. at 2795.

On October 17, 2006, the President signed into law the MCA.              MCA § 7(a)

stripped the courts of jurisdiction over habeas actions brought by aliens held any-

where by the United States. Section 5(a) of the MCA barred Guantánamo detain-

ees from challenging their detention as violative of the Geneva Conventions.

      On February 20, 2007, this Court issued its decision in Boumediene, 476

F.3d 981. The Court held that the MCA had stripped federal courts of jurisdiction

to entertain pending habeas actions brought by Guantánamo detainees. The Court

further held that Guantánamo detainees lacked standing to challenge MCA § 7(a)

as violative of the Due Process and Suspension Clauses because, as aliens held

outside the sovereign territory of the United States, the detainees lacked any consti-

tutional rights. Id. at 988-94. The detainees then petitioned for certiorari, which

this Court initially denied, on April 2, 2007, but granted, on July 29, 2007.

      On April 9, 2007, citing its decision in Boumediene, this Court vacated Para-

cha's appeals for lack of jurisdiction and ordered the District Court to dismiss his

habeas action. The Court's mandate issued on June 27, 2007. Paracha moved to

recall the mandate on July 2, 2007. Paracha expects to petition the Supreme Court

for certiorari to review the Court's ruling. His petition is due August 7, 2007.




                                        - 16 -
      On March 8, 2006, Paracha moved in his DTA action to strike classified

documents from the record before this Court or, in the alternative, to permit him

and his counsel to review them in unredacted form. That same day, he moved to

consolidate this case with the appeals from his habeas case and moved to produce

Majid Khan, Ammar Al-Baluchi, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammad for testimony.

On March 21, 2006, he filed a dispositive motion seeking a ruling that he is not an

"enemy combatant" as a matter of law. The Court has ruled only on Paracha's dis-

positive motion, denying it on Apr. 9, 2007, without prejudice to his subsequent

claims in this case.

                         SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT
      Although the Supreme Court has under review this Court's decision in

Boumediene, and although this Court has been asked to reconsider that decision en

banc in Hamdan, the Court should reach the merits and decide this case now be-

cause Paracha stands on a different legal footing than the Guantánamo detainees in

those cases. Unlike those detainees, Paracha is a lawful permanent resident of the

United States. He therefore enjoys the same constitutional rights as a citizen. Be-

cause this Court's decision in Boumediene hinged on the fact that the detainees in

those cases were aliens, pure and simple, the Court's rationale for its decision is

inapplicable here. Because Paracha unquestionably has constitutional rights, the

Court must address the merits of his Suspension Clause claims.



                                      - 17 -
      The Suspension Clause prohibits Congress from suspending the privilege of

the writ of habeas corpus, except in conditions of invasion or rebellion, unless it

provides an adequate substitute for habeas. The Supreme Court has held that an

adequate substitute for habeas is one that provides relief equivalent to habeas. The

only relief available to Paracha under MCA § 7 is the judicial review provided by

DTA § 1005(e)(2). Neither MCA § 7 nor DTA § 1005(e)(2) can survive Suspen-

sion Clause challenge unless DTA review provides relief equivalent to habeas.

Under the government's construction, MCA § 7 and DTA § 1005(e)(2) cannot sur-

vive Suspension Clause challenge because, thus construed, DTA § 1005(e)(2)

makes this Court little more than a rubber-stamp for final decisions of a CSRT, and

the CSRT process is stacked against the detainee.

      Nor did the government follow its own procedures in this case. The DTA

requires the Court to determine whether the CSRT's decision is "supported by a

preponderance of the evidence." DTA § 1005(e)(2)(C)(i). The Recorder did not

present the Court with all of the evidence in the government's possession bearing

on the allegations against Paracha. The DTA also requires the Court to determine

whether the detainee has been afforded a fair opportunity to rebut "the presumption

in favor of the government's evidence." Id. A detainee who was denied access to

all adverse evidence before the CSRT has not had a fair opportunity to rebut that

presumption.



                                       - 18 -
         DTA § 1005(e)(2) requires, at a minimum, that (1) the Court review all evi-

dence in the government's possession that may be relevant to a decision "that an

alien is properly detained as an enemy combatant;" (2) the detainee be afforded ac-

cess to all such evidence in order to rebut, if possible, the "presumption in favor of

the Government's evidence;" and (3) the detainee be afforded an opportunity, with

the assistance of counsel, to present evidence in his favor. Any more limited con-

struction of DTA review ­ and any review more limited than habeas review ­

would render the statute unconstitutional. Unless the Court construes DTA

§ 1005(e)(2) to authorize plenary and de novo review of the CSRT's decision in

this case, DTA § 1005(e)(2) and MCA § 7 cannot survive Suspension Clause chal-

lenge.

                             STANDARD OF REVIEW
         This Court's review of issues of law is de novo. The Court does not have

occasion to review facts in this case, because the CSRT process was constitution-

ally deficient; but to provide an adequate substitute for habeas, any review of the

facts in this case must also be de novo and plenary. Harris v. Nelson, 394 U.S.

286, 298 (1969) ("petitioners in habeas corpus proceedings ... are entitled to care-

ful consideration and plenary processing of their claims including full presentation

of the relevant facts"); Hawk v. Olson, 326 U.S. 271, 274 (1945).




                                        - 19 -
                                   ARGUMENT

I.    THE MCA'S ELIMINATION OF HABEAS JURISDICTION
      VIOLATES THE SUSPENSION CLAUSE.

      Absent a construction of DTA § 1005(e)(2) that would provide relief equiva-

lent to habeas, MCA § 7 violates the Suspension Clause.

      A.     Petitioner Has Standing To Claim Suspension Clause Violations.

             1.    As a lawful permanent resident of the United States, Peti-
                   tioner has rights protected by the Suspension Clause.

                   a)     Petitioner is a lawful permanent resident.
      The government asserted in its briefs below that Paracha stands on the same

legal footing as the Guantánamo detainees in Boumediene because he has aban-

doned his status as a lawful permanent resident of the United States. The govern-

ment asserts that he abandoned his LPR status by moving to Pakistan in 1986. The

government argues that his long stay in Pakistan establishes abandonment as a

matter of law. The government is mistaken. As discussed below, the length of an

LPR's time abroad is not dispositive. Whether an alien has abandoned his LPR

status is a question of fact to be determined after notice and hearing. Abandon-

ment cannot be established by counsel's assertions in a party's brief.

      As discussed above, Paracha returned to Pakistan to supervise the Pakistan

end of his U.S.-Pakistan travel agency business; later, he also supervised the Paki-

stan end of his U.S.-Pakistan export-import business; he and his wife, who also is

also a LPR, maintain a large extended family in the United States and intend to


                                       - 20 -
move back to the United States, close to their extended family, when Paracha re-

tires. See supra at 5. Paracha has more than a colorable claim that he continues to

be a lawful permanent resident of the United States.

      The Immigration and Nationality Act ("INA") provides that an alien with

lawful permanent resident status has been "lawfully accorded the privileges of re-

siding permanently in the United States as an immigrant in accordance with the

immigration laws." 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(20). At least in the case of an alien who

has not disclaimed his LPR status, LPR status cannot be revoked absent a formal

hearing. See Kwong Hai Chew v. Colding, 344 U.S. 590, 597 (1953) (revocation

of LPR status and exclusion from United States without a hearing violative of due

process); Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel. Mezei, 345 U.S. 206, 213 (1953)

("temporary absence from our shores cannot constitutionally deprive a returning

lawfully resident alien of his right to be heard").

      During such a hearing, the government must prove to a neutral factfinder by

"clear, unequivocal and convincing evidence" that the alien LPR has abandoned

his LPR status. In the case of an LPR who has left the country, the factfinder must

determine whether the LPR was on a "temporary" visit abroad from which he in-

tended to return:

      Some of the factors that could be used to determine whether an alien
      harbored a continuous, uninterrupted intention to return in addition to
      the alien's testimony include the alien's family ties, property holdings,
      and business affiliations within the United States, the duration of the

                                         - 21 -
      alien's residence in the United States, and the alien's family, property
      and business ties in the foreign country.
Chavez-Ramirez v. INS, 792 F.2d 932 (9th Cir. 1986); see also Woodby v. INS, 385

U.S. 276, 286 (1996); see also Singh v. Reno, 113 F.3d 1512, 1514 (9th Cir. 1997)

("When an applicant has a colorable claim to returning resident status . . . the INS

has the burden of proving he is not eligible for admission to the United States.").

      Neither the district court nor a competent administrative agency has re-

viewed Paracha's status as an LPR. Nor has he voluntarily informed the INS of an

intent to abandon his status. Indeed, before the instant litigation, the government

never challenged Paracha's immigration status at all. Accordingly, he presump-

tively remains a lawful permanent resident of the United States as a matter of both

constitutional and immigration law.

                   b)     Lawful permanent residents are protected by habeas
                          corpus and the Due Process Clause.
      Legal permanent resident aliens who have been admitted to the United States

enjoy full rights under the Constitution, including the right to due process of law in

connection with deprivations of life, liberty or property. See Zadvydas v. Davis,

533 U.S. 678, 690 (2001). When Paracha became a lawful permanent resident, he

became "invested with the rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all people

within our borders." United States v. Verdugo-Uriquidez, 494 U.S. 259, 271

(1990); see also id. at 265 (the Constitution's "people" includes those who have



                                        - 22 -
"developed sufficient connection with this country to be considered part of that

community."); Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202, 210, (1982); Yick Wo v. Hopkins, 118

U.S. 356, 369 (1886).

      LPRs also enjoy the same protections against unlawful detention guaranteed

by the Great Writ as do citizens. See Campos v. INS, 961 F.2d 309, 316 (1st Cir.

1992) ("lawful permanent resident aliens . . . enjoy, of course, the full protection of

the United States Constitution"); Saint Fort v. Ashcroft, 329 F.3d 191, 197 (1st Cir.

2003) ("[t]he writ of habeas corpus has been employed by non-citizens for centu-

ries in both the United States and Britain"); Tineo v. Ashcroft, 350 F.3d 382, 389

(3d Cir. 2003) (entertaining habeas petition from LPR under 28 U.S.C. § 1441);

Singh, 113 F.3d at 1514 (same); Jean-Baptiste v. Reno, 144 F.3d 212, 219 (2d Cir.

1998) ("Without the ability to seek a writ of habeas corpus under § 2241, certain

lawful permanent residents . . . would have no opportunity to address serious con-

stitutional issues."). Since their constitutional rights attach as a result of their sta-

tus and ties to the United States, rather than the locus of their arrest or detention,

the Writ's due process protections also reach those citizens and LPRs held abroad.

Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1, 6 (1957) (plurality opinion) ("When the Government

reaches out to punish a citizen who is abroad, the shield which the Bill of Rights

and other parts of the Constitution provide to protect his life and liberty should not

be stripped away just because he happens to be in another land.").



                                         - 23 -
      As an LPR, Paracha enjoys the full panoply of constitutional protections that

the Due Process Clause and Great Writ provide. To that extent, this Court's deci-

sion in Boumediene has no bearing on the dispositive issue raised in this case:

whether the Detainee Treatment Act provides a valid substitute for the writ to ha-

beas corpus for a lawful permanent resident who enjoys full constitutional rights.

Boumediene's constitutional holding addressed only habeas cases brought by "for-

eign nationals" who were "without property or presence within the United States."

Boumediene, 476 F.3d at 984, 990­91.

             2.     Even if not an LPR, Petitioner has rights protected by the
                    Suspension Clause.
      Even absent his LPR status, Paracha may assert that the MCA violated the

Suspension Clause by revoking his right to habeas review. Boumediene held oth-

erwise, but the issue is under review by the Supreme Court in that case, and Para-

cha will also seek initial hearing en banc.

                    a)    Habeas has historically been available to all who are
                          not citizens of a country at war with the United States.

      The Suspension Clause bars the MCA's incursion on the writ of habeas cor-

pus. "[A]t the absolute minimum, the Suspension Clause protects the writ `as it

existed in 1789.'" INS v. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. 289, 301 (2001) (quoting Felker v.

Turpin, 518 U.S. 651, 663-64 (1996)). The writ, as it existed in 1789, empowered

the courts to inquire into the basis of the detention of any person other than an en-



                                        - 24 -
emy alien, regardless of whether the person was an alien or alleged to be a prisoner

of war. Rasul, 542 U.S. at 480; Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2, 130-31 (1866); King

v. Schiever, 97 Eng. Rep. 551 (K.B. 1759); see also Case of the Hottentot Venus,

104 Eng. Rep. 344 (K.B. 1810) (detention of a South African national); Sommer-

sett v. Stewart, 20 How. St. Tr. 1 (K.B. 1772) (detention of an African slave pur-

chased in Virginia); United States v. Villato, 2 U.S. 370, 1 (C.C. Pa. 1797) (deten-

tion of a Spanish national). In Milligan, the Court addressed a detainee's challenge

to the government's assertion that he was a prisoner of war and found that the de-

tainee was entitled to trial in a civilian court because he was not such a prisoner.

71 U.S. at 131. Similarly, in Schiever, a Swedish citizen was permitted to seek ha-

beas relief from his detention by the British Navy, even though he was a foreign

citizen and was alleged to be a prisoner of war. 97 Eng. Rep. 551.

      Paracha is not an enemy alien but instead is a citizen of a country with which

the United States is at peace. See 50 U.S.C. § 21 (an enemy alien is a citizen of a

foreign nation against whom the United States has declared war). Paracha is not

even alleged to be a prisoner of war. Paracha therefore has at least the same right

to seek judicial inquiry through habeas into his detention as did Milligan and

Scheiver.




                                       - 25 -
                    b)    Habeas has historically been available at places within
                          a nation's exclusive control.
      The historical reach of habeas extended to places like Guantánamo. In Ra-

sul, the Supreme Court explained that "the reach of the writ depended not on for-

mal notions of territorial sovereignty, but rather on the practical question of `the

exact extent and nature of the jurisdiction or dominion exercised in fact by the

Crown.'" 542 U.S. at 482 (quoting Ex parte Mwenya, [1960] 1 Q.B. 241, 303

(C.A.) (Lord Evershed, M.R.)). In England, the courts extended the writ to places

that, while outside the formal jurisdiction of the Crown, were under the Crown's

control. See Bourn's Case, Cro. Jac. 543, 79 Enq. Rep. 465 (K.B. 1619) (writ of

habeas corpus extended to detainees held in the Cinque Ports, a confederation of

cities exempted from the ordinary jurisdiction of the courts); Sir Matthew Hale,

The History of the Common Law of England 121 (C. Gray Ed. 1971) (describing

reach of habeas to Duchy of Normandy, outside of the Realm of England); Rex v.

Mitter, 1 Indian Dec. 210 (1775) (writ of habeas corpus extended to India even

when it was not under formal sovereignty of Great Britain). Although in Rasul the

Supreme Court only found that the habeas statute reached Guantánamo, the writ

would have extended there without any statute, because Guantánamo is territory

under the "exclusive jurisdiction and control" of the United States. Rasul, 542

U.S. at 476. Accordingly, the Suspension Clause ensures Guantánamo detainees'

ability to invoke the writ. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. at 301.


                                        - 26 -
                   c)     The Suspension Clause is not an individual right but
                          instead limits government action.
      Further, as Judge Rogers recognized in her Boumediene dissent, the Suspen-

sion Clause does not merely confer an individual right but is a structural limitation

on the power of Congress. See 476 F.3d at 996-97. Thus, unlike the Fourth and

Fifth Amendments, which secure rights of "the people" or "persons," the Suspen-

sion Clause secures a remedy for unjustified Executive detention: "[T]he great ob-

ject of [the writ] is the liberation of those who may be imprisoned without suffi-

cient cause. It is in the nature of a writ of error, to examine the legality of the

commitment." See, e.g., Ex parte Watkins, 28 U.S. 193, 202 (1830).

      The writ of habeas corpus is "a writ antecedent to statute, . . . throwing its

root deep into the genius of our common law." Rasul, 542 U.S. at 473 (quoting

Williams v. Kaiser, 323 U.S. 471, 484 n.2 (1945)). At common law, even though

detainees lacked individual rights, the writ of habeas corpus required the detainee's

custodian to offer a legal and factual basis for the detention. See 1 William Black-

stone, Commentaries 132-33 (1765). The court was not required to take the Ex-

ecutive at its word, but would engage in a searching review of the factual and legal

validity of the custodian's return. See, e.g., Goldswain's Case, 96 Eng. Rep. 711

(1778); Rex v. Turlington, 97 Eng. Rep. 741 (1761); Bushell's Case, 124 Eng. Rep.

1006 (1670); Hodges v. Humkin, 80 Eng. Rep. 1015 (1613); Gardner's Case, 78

Eng. Rep. 1048 (1600). If the court did not find sufficient justification for the de-


                                       - 27 -
tention, it would order the prisoner released. See 1 William Blackstone, supra. It

is the lack of legal and factual justification for the detention, rather than the viola-

tion of any rights granted by positive law, that is the heart of habeas corpus review.

Thus, as the Court held in Rasul, the Guantánamo detainees have the "right to judi-

cial review of the legality of Executive detention." Rasul, 542 U.S. at 475.

                    d)     Guantánamo detainees have fundamental rights that
                           the government cannot deny.
      In Rasul, the Supreme Court recognized that Guantánamo detainees have

rights that habeas can vindicate. 542 U.S. at 484 n.15 ("Petitioners' allegations . . .

unquestionably describe `custody in violation of the Constitution or laws or treaties

of the United States.'") (citing Verdugo, 494 U.S. at 277-78 (1990) (Kennedy, J.,

concurring) and cases cited therein). The Court has previously acknowledged that

although an alien may not be entitled to all of the protections that the Constitution

provides, certain fundamental rights may be so inviolable as to apply to all who

come under the power of the United States. Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1, 8-9 (1957)

(plurality opinion); Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244, 282-83 (1901).

      It is difficult to conceive a right more "fundamental" than the right not to be

deprived of personal liberty except in accordance with law. See Magna Carta,

1215, at ¶ 39 ("No freeman shall be taken or imprisoned or disseised or exiled or in

any way destroyed, nor will we go upon him nor send upon him, except by the

lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land"); Groppi v. Leslie, 404 U.S.


                                         - 28 -
496, 502 (1971); Hamdi, 542 U.S. at 529. Failure to recognize this fundamental

right for Guantánamo detainees would leave Guantánamo a legal black hole ­ a

land without law ­ where the Executive can rule arbitrarily and absolutely. Such a

result would be "anomalous," to say the least. See Reid, 354 U.S. at 75 (Harlan, J.,

concurring).

      B.       Under the Government's Construction of DTA § 1005(e)(2),
               Congress Has Unlawfully Suspended Habeas Without Providing
               An Adequate Substitute.

               1.   CSRT proceedings are an inadequate substitute for habeas.
      Because the Constitution affords Paracha, as an LPR and as a detainee held

at Guantánamo, the same right to the writ of habeas corpus as that afforded to a

citizen, if Congress withdraws his right to petition for the writ, it must provide a

judicial forum that will grant him an effective opportunity to litigate the legality of

his detention. Swain v. Pressley, 430 U.S. 372, 381 (1977) (Congress must not

withdraw the writ unless it provides an "adequate and effective" alternative remedy

to "test the legality of a person's detention."). The government does not claim that

Congress's withdrawal of the writ via the Military Commissions Act constituted a

suspension "in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion" consistent with the Suspension

Clause, see U.S. Const. art. I § 9, Cl. 2. The issue is whether the alternative rem-

edy Congress has granted Paracha to challenge his unlawful detention under the

Detainee Treatment Act is "adequate and effective." The government's construc-



                                        - 29 -
tion of this remedy, however--a CSRT proceeding that denies him notice of the

factual basis for the CSRT's decision, a fair opportunity to respond to the govern-

ment's assertions, or a neutral decisionmaker to determine his innocence or guilt,

followed by narrow, inadequate judicial review of that proceeding's decision in an

appellate court--fails to comply with the demanding standard that suspension of

the writ requires.

      At the heart of the Great Writ is the ability to "inquire into illegal detention

with a view to an order releasing the petitioner," Preiser v. Rodriguez, 411 U.S.

475, 484 (1973) (internal citation omitted), and a petitioner is thereby "entitled to

[a] full opportunity for the presentation of the relevant facts" related to his deten-

tion. Harris v. Nelson, 394 U.S. 286, 298 (1969). Due process also requires "a fair

opportunity to rebut the Government's factual assertions before a neutral deci-

sionmaker." Hamdi, 542 U.S. at 533; see also Concrete Pipe & Prods. v. Constr.

Laborers Pension Trust, 508 U.S. 602, 617 (1993) (citation omitted) (due process

requires a "neutral and detached judge in the first instance").

      The CSRT Procedures fall far short of these constitutionally-mandated

marks. Paracha was deprived of a "fair opportunity to rebut the Government's fac-

tual assertions" or confront witnesses against him or present witnesses or evidence

on his behalf. The "PR" provided to Paracha to assist in his hearing under the

CSRT Procedures was not a lawyer, and was not required to have any relevant



                                        - 30 -
training. CSRT Procedures Enclosure (3) § C.3. The CSRT Procedures also spe-

cifically forbade Paracha's PR from serving as his "advocate," and during their

single 35-minute meeting less than a week prior to the CSRT hearing, the PR in-

formed Paracha that "[n]one of the information [provided by Paracha to the Repre-

sentative] shall be held in confidence." Id. § 3. Nor was Paracha able develop the

factual record through discovery, or to review or meaningfully contest the evidence

the Tribunal relied upon for its finding of combatant status. Much of that secret

evidence was hearsay that likely was obtained by coercion or torture.

         These bars to meaningful representation and rebuttal flout the procedural

protections the common law has historically granted to citizens detained by the

state. See Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36, 49 (2004) ("It is a rule of the

common law, founded on natural justice, that no man shall be prejudiced by evi-

dence which he had not the liberty to cross examine."). The CSRT panels them-

selves, composed of unidentified members of the military beholden to the chain of

command and denied access to exculpatory evidence, were operating under a pre-

ponderance of the evidence standard, and procedurally predisposed to a finding of

guilt.




                                       - 31 -
             2.     DTA Review is an inadequate substitute for habeas.
      Under the government's view, the DTA contemplates an impermissibly nar-

row role for Article III courts in reviewing Paracha's detention. According to the

government, this Court, the sole forum where Paracha may seek judicial review of

his CSRT determination, can only ask two questions when reviewing a CSRT deci-

sion: (1) whether the CSRT's determination was consistent with CSRT procedures

set out by the Department of Defense, see DTA, § 1005(e)(2)(i), and (2) whether

the "use of such standards and procedures to make the determination is consistent

with the Constitution and laws of the United States." Id. at § 1005(e)(2)(ii). This

Court has begun, in Bismullah and Parhat, to consider the procedures it will follow

in processing DTA claims. The government's argument in those cases, however,

demonstrates the irreparable flaws that would result if it prevails in those cases.

      The writ requires meaningful judicial review of a "full presentation of the

relevant facts." See Harris, 394 U.S. at 298. Under the government's own view,

however, the review provided to Paracha under the DTA is inherently inadequate.

In its Bismullah briefing, the government told that court that the habeas regime that

the district court found governed Paracha's claims "is not appropriate to this

Court's limited review under the DTA," and that the "review here is administrative

in nature and is on the record of the CSRT. Accordingly, factual development at

Guantanamo"--even development of the "relevant facts," see Harris, supra--



                                        - 32 -
"will not be necessary in pursuing this action." Resps.' Br. Addressing Prelim.

Mots. 32, Bismullah. Thus, if this Court follows the government's interpretation of

the DTA, it will be unable to consider facts outside of the record of the CSRT con-

cerning Paracha's detention, including, inter alia, potentially exculpatory evidence.

Without a full factual record, this Court's judicial review of CSRT proceedings

will therefore be by definition inconsistent with Paracha's due process rights and

will effectively suspend his right to seek the writ of habeas corpus.

II.   THE MCA'S ELIMINATION OF GENEVA CONVENTIONS
      CLAIMS VIOLATES THE SUSPENSION CLAUSE AND EX PARTE
      KLEIN.

      A.     Stripping Habeas Courts of the Power to Consider Valid Legal
             Claims Related to the Legality of Detention Violates the
             Suspension Clause.
      Section 5(a) of the MCA bars Guantanamo detainees from seeking habeas

relief on the ground that their detention violates the Geneva Conventions. See

MCA § 5(a).62 However, in cases of executive detention, detainees must be able to

raise "all issues relating to the legality of detention," including non-constitutional

claims. INS v. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. 289, 302-03 & n.14 (2001) (emphasis added).

62
      The section reads:
      IN GENERAL--No person may invoke the Geneva Conventions or
      any protocols thereto in any habeas corpus or other civil action or pro-
      ceeding to which the United States, or a current or former officer, em-
      ployee, member of the Armed Forces, or other agent of the United
      States is a party as a source of rights in any court of the United States
      or its States or territories.



                                        - 33 -
Courts have recognized "a long history of use of habeas of aliens to challenge con-

finement in violation of treaty obligations," and "American courts have exercised

habeas review over claims of aliens based on treaty obligations since the earliest

days of the republic." Saint Fort, 329 F.3d at 201-02; Wang v. Ashcroft, 320 F.3d

130, 141 n.16 (2d Cir. 2003).

      Claims of violations of the Geneva Conventions fall into this category. The

Conventions have the status of supreme federal law, are a "treat[y] of the United

States" within the meaning of 28 U.S.C. § 2241(c)(3), and therefore provide a sub-

stantive source of rights that may be vindicated via habeas. As long as the Con-

ventions remain in force, the Executive must comply with them in order to render a

detention legal, and individuals detained in contravention of this obligation must

have access to habeas relief. St. Cyr, 533 U.S. at 303 n.14; Hamdan v. Rumsfeld,

126 S. Ct. at 2794 ("[i]t should be possible . . . for the rules of the Convention to be

evoked before an appropriate national court by the protected person who has suf-

fered a violation."). Because the Supreme Court in Hamdan found that the Con-

ventions were judicially enforceable as laws of war, Congress cannot not alter the

Conventions' enforceability without abrogating the Conventions themselves,

which the MCA does not attempt to do.63 Section 5(a), therefore, strips courts of


63
       Congress has the constitutional authority to abrogate or supersede treaties by
later statute; however, courts have refused to so construe statutes absent a clear
                                                                      (continued...)

                                         - 34 -
the power to grant habeas relief based on valid treaty claims in violation of the

Suspension Clause.

      B.     Section 5(a)'s Limitation on the Applicable Law Courts May
             Consider in Petitioner's Pending Habeas Case Violates Klein.
      Congress unconstitutionally violates the separation of powers when it directs

federal courts to decide pending cases in contravention of the law. United States v.

Klein, 80 U.S. (13 Wall.) 128, 146 (1872). The legislature has substantial power to

structure the jurisdiction of the federal courts, but Klein requires that "so long at

least as Congress feels impelled to invoke the assistance of courts, the supremacy

of law in their decisions is assured." Henry M. Hart, Jr., The Power of Congress to

Limit the Jurisdiction of Federal Courts: An Exercise in Dialectic, 66 Harv. L.

Rev. 1362, 1383 (1953).

      The Klein rule does not apply when Congress merely "amend[s] applicable

law," but it restricts Congress from dictating to courts a rule of decision. Plaut v.

Spendthrift Farm, 514 U.S. 211, 218 (1995). Since Section 5(a) does not affect the

Geneva Conventions' vitality or enforceability, but instead directs courts to ignore


statement from Congress of its intent to abrogate or supersede. Cook v. United
States, 288 U.S. 102, 120 (1933) (neither a treaty nor an executive agreement is
"abrogated or modified by a later statute unless such purpose on the part of Con-
gress has been clearly expressed."). There is no such clear statement in the MCA.
Indeed, to the contrary, the MCA's language indicates Congress's intention to im-
plement U.S. obligations under the Conventions. See MCA § 6 ("Implementation
of Treaty Obligations").


                                       - 35 -
the Conventions in deciding a subset of pending cases--including those of detain-

ees such as Paracha--the MCA dictates a rule of decision in violation of Klein.

III.   THE MCA AND DTA VIOLATE THE BILL OF ATTAINDER
       CLAUSE AND THE FIFTH AMENDMENT'S GUARANTEE OF
       EQUAL PROTECTION.

       A.    The MCA and DTA Are Classic Bills of Attainder.
       As construed by the government, the MCA and DTA are Bills of Attainder

prohibited by Article I, § 9, clause 3, of the Constitution ("No Bill of Attainder ...

shall be passed."), because they deny of habeas corpus relief to a small, distinct,

and unpopular group. The Bill of Attainder clause prohibits this type of "depriva-

tion of any rights, civil or political," including "the privilege of appearing in

courts," when imposed on an otherwise disfavored minority. Cummings v. Mis-

souri, 71 U.S. 277, 320 (1866); United States v. Brown, 381 U.S. 437, 445-47

(1965).

       To qualify as a Bill of Attainder, a legislative enactment must (1) apply with

specificity to an identified individual or group, and (2) impose punishment. Fore-

tich v. United States, 351 F.3d 1198, 1217 (D.C. Cir. 2003). The DTA and MCA

as construed by the government meet this standard. First, the bills in question ap-

ply to "easily ascertainable members of a group." United States v. Lovett, 328 U.S.

303, 315 (1946). By referring only to aliens held as enemy combatants by the U.S.

government, DTA § 1005(e)(1), MCA § 7, they refer to a discretely identified



                                        - 36 -
group that the Executive purports to have the sole freedom to define. These laws

easily meet the specificity criterion for classification as a Bill of Attainder.

      Determination of the punitive aspect of legislation subject to Bill of Attain-

der Clause analysis includes consideration of three factors: "(1) whether the chal-

lenged statute fails within the historical meaning of punishment; (2) whether the

statute, `viewed in terms of the type and severity of burdens imposed, reasonably

can be said to further nonpunitive legislative purposes'; and (3) whether the legis-

lative record `evinces a congressional intent to punish.'" Foretich, 351 F.3d at

1218 (quoting Selective Service System v. Minnesota Public Interest Group, 468

U.S. 841, 852 (1984)). A statute need not satisfy all three factors to be a Bill of

Attainder; they are merely factors to be considered. Selective Service Sys., 468

U.S. at 852. The test is a functional one not dependent on labeling by the legisla-

ture. Cummings, 71 U.S. at 325 ("The Constitution deals with substance, not shad-

ows. Its inhibition was leveled at the thing, not the name." ).

      Denial of equal access to the courts meets the historic definition of punish-

ment. This is especially true under the government's analysis of the MCA and

DTA, which it construes to deprive Guantánamo detainees of the ability to attack

the constitutional legitimacy of their confinement and to destroy any opportunity

they might otherwise have had in habeas litigation to develop facts to counter the

one-sided record created in the CSRT. Consequently, as construed by the govern-



                                         - 37 -
ment, the MCA and DTA ensure that the petitioners' detention will be prolonged

and indefinite based only on the military tribunal's review, a state of affairs which

the Cummings court listed as an historically-recognized form of punishment. 71

U.S. at 321 (quoting William Blackstone, 4 Commentaries). See also Lynce v. Ma-

this, 519 U.S. 433, 442 (1997) (discussing constitutional bases of prohibitions on

retroactive action and removal of eligibility for a benefit as punishment).

      The punitive aspects of the MCA and DTA, as a practical matter, are ex-

treme. Imprisonment itself is punitive--whether brief or prolonged and regardless

of the conditions. Brown, 381 U.S. at 458 (imprisonment regardless of its purpose

is punishment). Here, Paracha has been in onerous custody, virtually incommuni-

cado, for over four years. The indefinite duration of the custody that the govern-

ment has imposed on him places it at the apex of punitive measures. Zadvydas v.

Davis, 533 U.S. 678, 690 (2001).

      The nonpunitive purposes of the DTA and MCA are negligible compared to

the punitive consequences. The protective order entered in the district court main-

tained control over the government's security interests without depriving Paracha

of the essential means of challenging his determination. Under the government's

construction, the DTA and MCA's sole purpose is to deprive aliens held as enemy

combatants, and only that group, of the meaningful judicial review that habeas

corpus provides. They are therefore unconstitutional.



                                        - 38 -
      B.     The MCA and DTA As Construed by the Government Violate
             Equal Protection.
      In Rasul, the Supreme Court found that 28 U.S.C. § 2241, the habeas statute,

applied equally to U.S. citizens and to aliens held at Guantánamo. 542 U.S. at 481

("there is little reason to think that Congress intended the geographical coverage of

the statute to vary depending on the detainee's citizenship"). Responding to Rasul,

Congress passed the DTA in an effort to strip jurisdiction over actions brought by

aliens held at Guantánamo; however, the Supreme Court found in Hamdan v.

Rumsfeld, 126 S. Ct. 2749 (2006), that the DTA did not strip jurisdiction over

pending habeas actions. Congress responded three weeks later, passing the MCA.

The MCA specifically precluded aliens detained as enemy combatants from seek-

ing habeas relief. MCA § 7(a). Instead, it forced them to contest their detention

through the DTA, id., a review that the government construes as extremely limited.

      This classification is subject to strict scrutiny. The Fifth Amendment to the

Constitution precludes the government from denying citizens and non-citizens the

equal protection of the laws. Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497, 498-500 (1954).

When the government denies fundamental rights, such as access to the courts, to an

unpopular class of individuals, its actions are subject to strict scrutiny. Clark v. Je-

ter, 486 U.S. 456, 461 (1988) (laws withdrawing access to fundamental rights are

subject to strict scrutiny); Griffin v. Illinois, 351 U.S. 12, 17 (1956) (discrimination

in providing access to courts violates equal protection). Aliens are one of these


                                         - 39 -
unpopular classes; indeed, they "are a prime example of a `discrete and insular mi-

nority.'" Graham v. Richardson, 403 U.S. 365, 372 (1971). And the discrimina-

tion here deprives aliens of the most fundamental right of all--the right to habeas

review. Carafas v. LaVallee, 391 U.S. 234, 238 (1968) (habeas is "shaped to guar-

antee the most fundamental of all rights" ).

      The government cannot show that there is a compelling government interest

in denying only aliens the right to seek habeas relief. Even assuming that with-

drawing such rights is necessary to save American lives here and at home, there is

no rational reason that Congress would provide citizen enemy combatants with the

full panoply of habeas rights while forcing alien enemy combatants into a narrow

"some evidence" review of a non-adversarial military tribunal's decision, with in-

definite imprisonment the result if their challenge fails. See Hamdi, 542 U.S. at

519 (an enemy combatant citizen, "if released, would pose the same threat of re-

turning to the front during the ongoing conflict"). This distinction between citi-

zens and aliens is arbitrary, made based on a categorization that permitted the gov-

ernment to punish only a disfavored class without meaningful judicial review. Yick

Wo v. Hopkins, 118 U.S. 356, 374 (1886) ("the conclusion cannot be resisted that

no reason for [the distinction] exists except hostility to the race and nationality to

which the petitioners belong, and which, in the eye of the law, is not justified.")

Under the Fifth Amendment, this categorization cannot stand.



                                        - 40 -
IV.      THE GOVERNMENT'S INDEFINITE IMPRISONMENT OF
         PARACHA, A LAWFUL PERMANENT RESIDENT ABDUCTED
         FROM THAILAND, AS AN ENEMY COMBATANT VIOLATES THE
         AUMF.
         The AUMF authorized the President to wage war against the nations, per-

sons, or organizations who planned, authorized, committed, or aided the September

11 terrorist attacks, or who harbored such persons. Pub. L. 107-40, §§ 1-2, 115

Stat. 224 (2001). It did not authorize the President to sweep up and indefinitely de-

tain accused "affiliates of al Qaeda" who were thousands of miles from the battle-

field.

         The government's position that Paracha is an enemy combatant whose de-

tention is authorized by the AUMF contradicts that statute, which must be inter-

preted consistent with longstanding principles of the law of war. Hamdi, 542 U.S.

at 521. These longstanding principles do not provide for an interpretation that

makes Paracha, abducted from the Bangkok airport, an enemy combatant. The dis-

tinction between Paracha and combatants captured on the battlefield is set forth in

Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2 (1866). Milligan, a citizen of Indiana, had allegedly

"conspired with bad men to assist the enemy," id. at 129, plotting to seize arsenals

of the United States government and liberate prisoners of war, id. at 17. The gov-

ernment asserted that he was a combatant and that it could thus subject him to a

military trial. Id. at 131. The Court disagreed, finding that Milligan was entitled to

a civilian trial because he had not engaged in hostilities. Id. at 131.


                                         - 41 -
      In Hamdi, the Court found that the AUMF permitted the government to de-

tain an American citizen seized on the battlefield in Afghanistan as an enemy com-

batant. 542 U.S. at 521. In its holding, however, the Court distinguished Milligan,

stating that Milligan was arrested far from the battlefield, which led to the conclu-

sion that he was not an enemy combatant. Id. at 522. Had Milligan been seized on

a Confederate battlefield carrying a rifle, the Court noted, the government may

have had the authority to detain him for the duration of the conflict as an enemy

combatant. Id. Milligan, not Hamdi, is the proper analogue to Paracha's case.

      Further, international law, which is part of the law of war under which the

AUMF is interpreted, precludes Paracha's indefinite detention. First, the Geneva

Conventions, which govern the U.S. conflict with al Qaeda in Afghanistan, Ham-

dan v. Rumsfeld, 127 S.Ct. 2749, 2795 (2006), provide clear rules for distinguish-

ing prisoners of war from civilians and do not provide for an amorphous "enemy

combatant" category that can be manipulated as the detaining government sees fit.

See, e.g., Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Third

Geneva Convention) arts. 2, 4, 5, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3316, 75 U.N.T.S. 135;

Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War

(Fourth Geneva Convention) art. 4, Aug. 12, 1949, 6 U.S.T. 3516, 75 U.N.T.S.

287. Moreover, under Common Article 3 of the Conventions, which applies to the

U.S. conflict with al Qaeda, Hamdan, 127 S.Ct. at 2796, a captor cannot sentence a



                                       - 42 -
civilian without a trial before a "regularly constituted court, affording all the judi-

cial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples."

Fourth Geneva Convention, art. 3. Yet the government claims the authority to hold

Paracha in solitary confinement for the duration of an indefinite war because it has

not attempted to try him, but instead has provided him only with a proceeding in

which he did not have counsel, a chance to rebut the evidence, or a fair chance to

present exculpatory evidence. The AUMF does not provide this authority.

       Second, international law does not recognize detention for the duration of a

war on an idea ("terror") or an ideology ("Islamofascism") that the government ar-

gues justifies its indefinite detention of Paracha. Although international law rec-

ognizes that the capture on the battlefield and temporary detention of enemy com-

batants is a regular incident of war, see Hamdi, 542 U.S. at 518-19, "[i]t is a clearly

established principle of the law of war that detention may last no longer than active

hostilities," id. at 520-21. In other words, international law anticipates that armed

conflict will end, at which any point detention must also end. On the other hand,

here, Paracha faces detention for the rest of his life given that the underpinnings of

the "war on terror" are "broad and malleable" and "the current conflict is unlikely

to end with a formal cease-fire agreement." Hamdi, 542 U.S. at 520. Paracha's

indefinite detention pursuant to a war on an idea therefore violates international

law.



                                        - 43 -
      Because Congress did not make an affirmative statement of intent to violate

these principles of international law when it passed the AUMF, the AUMF does

not permit Paracha's detention. Murray v. The Schooner Charming Betsy, 6 U.S.

(2 Cranch) 64, 118 (1804) ("an act of congress ought never to be construed to vio-

late the law of nations, if any other possible construction remains").

V.    THE PROCEDURES UNDER WHICH PARACHA'S CSRT WAS
      CONDUCTED DID NOT COMPLY WITH THE DTA'S REQUIRED
      STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES.

      A.     Paracha's CSRT Was Not Conducted Under the Standards That
             the DTA Contemplates and Was Therefore Invalid Per Se.

      Because it was conducted before the DTA became law, Paracha's CSRT was

conducted under the Wolfowitz Order and CSRT Procedures, not under the stan-

dards and procedures that the DTA requires the Secretary of Defense to specify

and submit to Congress for review. DTA §§ 1005(a), 1005(e)(2)(C)(i). Therefore,

as a matter of law, Paracha's CSRT determination was not consistent with those

standards and procedures or with the DTA itself, and must be overturned for that

reason alone. DTA § 1005(e)(2)(C)(i).

      B.     Paracha's CSRT Failed to Provide Safeguards Required by the
             DTA.
      Moreover, the DTA stated that the procedures submitted for the CSRTs had

to include certain safeguards, including review of CSRT determinations by a des-

ignated civilian officer, a procedure for the review of new evidence, and a re-

quirement that a CSRT consider whether the government had obtained statements

                                        - 44 -
derived from or relating to a detainee by coercion. DTA § 1005(a).

      The Wolfowitz Order and CSRT Procedures did not include these safe-

guards, which guarantee due process. First, they did not provide for review of new

evidence and new CSRTs. Second, Paracha's CSRT failed to consider whether

statements derived from or related to him were obtained by coercion, a serious

flaw that Congress sought to remedy by passing the DTA. See In re Guantánamo

Detainee Cases, 355 F. Supp. 2d 443, 473 (2004) ("At a minimum, . . . due process

requires a thorough inquiry into the accuracy and reliability of statements alleged

to have been obtained through torture.") Indeed, there is sufficient ground to sus-

pect that those statements were indeed obtained by coercion. See Part VI.D., infra.

Third, no civilian officer reviewed the results of Paracha's CSRT, even though

such review is substantially different from final review by a military official who

does not hold a position at the consent of the Senate and who may inherently be

biased toward the military. The status determination of Paracha's CSRT violated

both the DTA and the Constitutional guarantee of due process because it lacked

these necessary safeguards as provided in the DTA.

      C.    The CSRT Procedures As Applied Do Not Provide A Basis For
            Determining Under the DTA Whether the CSRT's Decision Was
            Supported By A Preponderance Of The Evidence.
      Under the DTA, this Court evaluates whether the conclusion of the CSRT

was supported by a "preponderance of the evidence." DTA § 1005(2)(C)(ii). The



                                      - 45 -
government's proposed scope of review does not permit the Court to make this

evaluation. The CSRT Procedures, which created the minimal record before the

Court, provide no basis for evaluating whether a "preponderance of the evidence"

supported the CSRT's determination, because the evidence that was or should have

been collected goes far beyond that record. As the declarations submitted in Bis-

mullah show, the Recorder failed to collect all relevant information, failed to re-

view it, and failed to present exculpatory evidence. The CSRT abdicated its duty

to consider the reliability of the government's hearsay evidence. Discovery is nec-

essary to discern exactly what the evidence should have been, on both the govern-

ment's side and on Paracha's side, and then balance that evidence. If Paracha is

granted no such discovery, review of the CSRT under the DTA is impossible with-

out violating the DTA and the due process rights to which he, a lawful permanent

resident, is entitled.

       D.     The CSRT Procedures As Applied Violated The DTA's
              Requirement That A Detainee Be Given An Opportunity To
              Rebut The Presumption In Favor Of The Government's
              Evidence.
       Under the DTA, the Court should evaluate whether the CSRT's determina-

tion was consistent with a rebuttable presumption in favor of the government's

evidence. DTA § 1005(2)(C)(ii). The CSRT Procedures provided for a presump-

tion in favor of the government's evidence, but there was no rebuttal allowed. The

function of rebuttal evidence is to "contradict, impeach or defuse the impact of the


                                       - 46 -
evidence offered by an adverse party." United States v. Grintjes, 237 F.3d 876,

879 (7th Cir. 2001) (quoting United States v. Papia, 560 F.2d 827, 848 (7th

Cir. 1977)) (quotations omitted). Paracha had no means of contradicting, impeach-

ing, or defusing the government's evidence because he never saw it. Instead, he

saw only a conclusory summary of it that completely lacked any supporting proof.

He had no counsel or advocate to help him rebut the secret evidence used against

him. He had no ability to cross-examine witnesses or show that their statements

were unreliable. This procedure was inherently unfair. Guantánamo Detainee

Cases, 355 F. Supp. at 469.

      Even now, his security-cleared counsel has only been permitted to see a

heavily redacted version of the government's evidence, and the government seeks

to preclude counsel from gathering any more information for this case aside from

the evidence submitted to the CSRT. The government thus asks the Court to adopt

in toto the CSRT's failure to provide Paracha with a meaningful opportunity to re-

but the evidence against him. As a result of this interpretation, the "rebuttable pre-

sumption" provided by the DTA will become an unrebuttable presumption in favor

of the government's evidence, violating both the DTA and due process.

      The Court must therefore consider evidence from outside the CSRT record,

and should permit the discovery necessary to supplement that record. Paracha

needs access to the full set of Government Information that was or should have



                                        - 47 -
been collected by the Recorder and the Team, including records of the FBI's inves-

tigation of his business's shipments and the results of any polygraph tests. He

needs access to the Government Evidence in unredacted form. He needs discovery

of exculpatory information, including the letters he wrote to the U.S. government,

and any records that would show that the evidence against him was obtained by

torture or coercion.

      If the Bismullah and Parhat court rules that such evidence is indeed perti-

nent in DTA proceedings, Paracha will then file a motion seeking this evidence. 64

If the Court preemptively acts without it and denies Paracha's claim for relief,

however, it will fail to conduct the review required by the DTA and will deny Pa-

racha the due process that this proceeding, his presence in the territorial jurisdic-

tion of the United States, and his permanent resident status entitle him to receive.

VI.   PARACHA'S CSRT WAS INVALID BECAUSE IT FAILED TO
      COMPLY WITH THE WOLFOWITZ ORDER, CSRT
      PROCEDURES AND THE CONSTITUTION AND LAWS OF THE
      UNITED STATES.

      Even if a CSRT conducted under the Wolfowitz Order and CSRT Proce-

dures could be valid with regard to Paracha, a citizen of a friendly nation who was

abducted far from the battlefield, the determination that Paracha was an enemy


64
      Paracha has sought discovery in his cases for over a year. Mot. to Allow and
Accelerate Discovery, Paracha v. Bush, No. 04-2022 (PLF) (D.D.C. filed Oct. 3,
2005).


                                        - 48 -
combatant is invalid for a number of reasons.

      A.       Paracha Did Not Meet the Definition of Enemy Combatant in the
               Wolfowitz Order.
      Under the Wolfowitz Order, to be an enemy combatant, an individual had to

be part of or supporting al Qaeda or Taliban forces. Wolfowitz Order § a. The

term "includes any person who has committed a belligerent act or has directly sup-

ported hostilities in aid of enemy armed forces." Id. This definition does not in-

clude a citizen of Pakistan, accused of no hostile act, who the government abducted

in a Thailand airport thousands of miles from its battlefield with al Qaeda and the

Taliban.65 See Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. at 518 ("The purpose of detention is

to prevent captured individuals from returning to the field of battle and taking up

arms once again."). DTA § 1005(e)(2)(C)(i) therefore invalidates the CSRT's de-

termination.

65
       This issue was also briefed in Paracha's dispositive motion, filed March 21,
2006 and denied without prejudice to his claims in this case. The recent ruling of a
panel in the Fourth Circuit in Al-Marri v. Wright, 481 F.3d 160 (4th Cir. 2007), pe-
tition for rehearing en banc pending, supports Paracha's position that he is not a
combatant, enemy or otherwise. "[E]nemy combatant status rests on an individ-
ual's affiliation during wartime with the `military arm of the enemy government.'
Quirin, 317 U.S. at 37-38; Hamdi, 542 U.S. at 519; see also Padilla, 423 F.3d at
391." Al Marri. Detaining a person who has never been on the battlefield does not
serve the purpose of preventing enemy combatants from returning to the battle-
field. Id. The Fourth Circuit also noted: "Common Article 3 and other Geneva
Convention provisions applying to non-international conflicts (in contrast to those
applying to international conflicts, such as that with Afghanistan's Taliban gov-
ernment) simply do not recognize the `legal category' of enemy combatant. See
Third Geneva Convention, art. 3, 6 U.S.T. at 3318." Id. at 52.


                                       - 49 -
      Moreover, the finding that Paracha was an enemy combatant even though

the Wolfowitz Order did not provide for such a finding was inconsistent with the

Constitution and the rule of law in this country, meaning that DTA

§ 1005(e)(2)(C)(ii) also invalidates that determination. When the government fails

to follow its own standards and regulations in making a determination with regard

to an individual, that failure violates the individual's due process rights, rendering

the determination invalid. See Service v. Dulles, 354 U.S. 363, 388 (1957); United

States ex rel. Accardi v. Shaughnessy, 347 U.S. 260, 268 (1954). As the Court

found in Accardi, aliens are protected from actions taken by the government that

contradict its own regulations. 347 U.S. at 268. Here, the military defined the

term enemy combatant for the CSRTs, protecting individuals who were not subject

to that definition from indefinite detention for the duration of the war on terror--

but only if the definition was applied correctly in the individual CSRTs. By failing

to follow that definition, Paracha's CSRT denied him due process and violated the

rule of law.

      B.       The CSRT and Its Staff Failed to Comply with the CSRT
               Procedures, Resulting in a Finding that Paracha Was an Enemy
               Combatant Based on Evidence That Likely Was Obtained by
               Torture or Coercion.
      Under the CSRT Procedures, the Recorder, a commissioned officer with

TOP SECRET security clearance, was supposed to obtain and examine the rea-

sonably available information in the government's possession bearing on Paracha's


                                        - 50 -
status (the "Government Information"), and then to present all exculpatory infor-

mation. CSRT Procedures Enclosure (1) §§ E. and H.4; Enclosure (2) § C.1. The

Recorder failed in these duties. First, the Recorder abdicated responsibility to a

poorly trained document collection Team that gathered some, but not all, of the

Government Information and then discarded materials collected without reason.

Abraham Decl. ¶¶ 7, 16. The Team failed to obtain other information due to its

own lack of knowledge and withholding by other government agencies, even with-

out a certification that the information withheld was not exculpatory. Abraham

Decl. ¶¶ 10-12, 17.

      Second, the Recorder did not gather and present all exculpatory information

for a number of reasons. Recalcitrant agencies withheld evidence and refused to

certify that none of it was exculpatory, as the CSRT Procedures required. Abra-

ham Decl. ¶¶ 12-15. The Recorder and the Team withheld exculpatory evidence

from the CSRT based on ill-founded determinations that it was "marginally rele-

vant." Abraham Decl. ¶ 17; see also McGarrah Decl. ¶ 13. The government

would decide not to present allegations related to a certain activity and would then

withhold all evidence related to that activity, including exculpatory evidence.

McGarrah Decl. ¶ 13.

      In Paracha's case, the only exculpatory evidence provided to the CSRT was

that submitted by Paracha's counsel, who did not even know his client was held at



                                       - 51 -
Guantanamo at the time. The Recorder did not present a single exculpatory docu-

ment, despite the statements by Khan and al Baluchi that the government revealed

during the trial of Paracha's son and the letters that Paracha wrote to the U.S. gov-

ernment (which the CSRT President deemed irrelevant despite the possibility that

they would exculpate Paracha).

      These failures alone are sufficient to invalidate Paracha's CSRT. One fail-

ure of Paracha's CSRT, however, was particularly egregious. The CSRT and its

staff completely ignored whether the secret hearsay evidence used against Paracha

was obtained by torture or coercion. The Team and Recorder apparently failed to

collect any documents relating to the circumstances under which the evidence was

obtained, because otherwise they would have been compelled to submit it. The

CSRT did not inquire into those circumstances, as the Wolfowitz Order required it

to do to evaluate the reliability of the hearsay evidence. Wolfowitz Order § g.9.

Indeed, the Army Field Manual recognizes that information obtained by the use of

"[a]cts of violence or intimidation, including physical or mental torture, or expo-

sure to inhumane treatment" is of "questionable value."66

      Although counsel can only guess at the sources of the evidence used against

Paracha because the government refuses to reveal those sources, it is extremely
66
       Headquarters, Dep't of the Army, FM 2-22.3, Human Intelligence Collector
Operations, at 5-26 (September 2006), available at
http://www.army.mil/institution/armypublicaffairs/pdf/fm2-22-3.pdf.


                                       - 52 -
likely that the evidence was of such "questionable value" if it was obtained at

Guantánamo, Bagram, or in CIA secret prisons. In December 2002, then-Secretary

of Defense Donald Rumsfeld approved a set of interrogation techniques for

Guantánamo prisoners that were harsher than those approved by the Army Field

Manual.67 At Guantánamo, the government extracted information from at least one

prisoner under extreme conditions that rendered him incoherent and potentially in-

sane, as a secret interrogation log reveals.68 Even an internal Army investigation

of the interrogation found that it constituted abusive treatment.69

      In response to the Secretary of the Navy's concerns, on January 12, 2003,

Secretary Rumsfeld revoked his order approving the use of these techniques at

Guantánamo.70 At Guantánamo, however, interrogations continued to include tac-

tics such as isolation, sleep "adjustment," and intimidation.71

      Furthermore, the practices approved in December 2002 migrated to Bagram,
67
       See Action Memo from William J. Haynes II, General Counsel, DOD, to
Secretary       of     Defense     (Nov.     27,      2002),      available     at
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2004/d20040622doc5.pdf; A.T. Church III,
Review of Dep't of Defense Detention Operations and Detainee Interrogation
Techniques        at    116-117     (Mar.     11,      2005),     available     at
http://www.aclu.org/images/torture/asset_upload_file625_26068.pdf.
68
       Adam Zagorin and Michael Duffy, Inside the Interrogation of Detainee 063,
Time (Jun. 12, 2005).
69
       Army Regulation 15-6: Final Report, Investigation of FBI Allegations of De-
tainee Abuse at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba Detention Facility at 20, available at
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jul2005/d20050714report.pdf.
70
       Church, supra, at 120.
71
       Id. at 138-140.


                                        - 53 -
where commanding officers disapproved only a select number of them during the

time that the government held Paracha there.72 Further, personnel at Bagram im-

properly read the rules for interrogations to include stress positions and sleep "ad-

justment."73 Paracha has stated that he was held in "extremely severe bad condi-

tions" and "in isolation" during his fifteen months at Bagram.74

      Finally, the CIA subjected high-value detainees held in secret prisons to

"enhanced interrogation techniques" including mock executions through water-

boarding, physical abuse, and forced standing.75 Among these high-value detain-

ees were Majid Khan, Ammar al Baluchi, and Khalid Sheikh Mohammad,76 who

were named in Paracha's son's case, Paracha, No. 03-CR-1197, 2006 WL 12768,

at *11, and were discussed at Paracha's CSRT.77 It is a near certainty that they

were subjected to the CIA's "enhanced" techniques.78 Indeed, in their CSRT pro-


72
       Id. at 196-197.
73
       Id. at 196-197 and 237.
74
       CSRT Decision Report Exhibit D-b at 2, App. 58.
75
       Ross and Esposito, supra.
76
       See http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Combatant_Tribunals.html;
http://www.odni.gov/announcements/content/DetaineeBiographies.pdf.
77
       CSRT Decision Report Enclosure (3) at 11, App. 16; Unclassified Recording
of CSRT Proceeding.
78
       Khaled al-Masri, who like Khan was detained in the CIA's "Salt Pit" in Af-
ghanistan, has described the techniques, including sodomization and mock execu-
tion, to which he was subjected there. Mot. for Access to Counsel Ex. E, Khan v.
Bush, No. 06-1690 (RBW) (D.D.C. filed Nov. 4, 2006). Mohammad was also sub-
jected to a mock execution. Walter Pincus, Waterboarding Historically Contro-
versial, Washington Post (Oct. 5, 2006).


                                       - 54 -
ceedings, Khan and Mohammad described their torture at the hands of the govern-

ment, but those descriptions are redacted from the transcripts released to the pub-

lic.79

         The CSRT's ruling, which ignored the very real possibility that evidence

used against Paracha was obtained by these tactics, is therefore invalid because it

violated the Wolfowitz Order. If that evidence was indeed obtained by torture or

coercion, the use of that evidence would violate the Fifth and Eighth Amendments

to the Constitution, DTA § 1003, Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions,

Article 15 of the U.N. Convention Against Torture,80 and the law of nations under

the Alien Tort Statute, 28 U.S.C. § 1350. The government may argue that Paracha

cannot show that the evidence against him was definitely obtained by such tactics,

but this is a textbook Catch-22. Paracha's counsel cannot transform this possibility

into a certainty without discovery of the identity of the sources, which the govern-

ment has withheld to date, and discovery of interrogation logs and other documents

reflecting tactics used to obtain information from those sources. If the CSRT's rul-

ing is affirmed at face value without that discovery, Paracha's rights to any mean-
79
       Verbatim Transcript of CSRT Hearing for ISN 10020 at 28, available at
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/transcript_ISN10020.pdf; Verbatim Transcript of
CSRT       Hearing     for    ISN       10024    at     14,     available    at
http://www.defenselink.mil/news/transcript_ISN10024.pdf.
80
       The U.N. Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrad-
ing Treatment or Punishment, art. 15, opened for signature Dec. 10, 1984, G.A.
Res. 39146, Annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. No. 51, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)


                                       - 55 -
ingful review of that ruling will be effectively denied.

                                   CONCLUSION
      The orders of the CSRT and Director should be vacated and the Court

should order Paracha's unconditional release to Pakistan. In the alternative, the

Court should permit discovery and supplemental briefing to give Paracha a full op-

portunity to present the relevant facts.




                                                    Respectfully submitted,


                                                    David H. Remes
                                                    COVINGTON & BURLING LLP

                                                    Gaillard T. Hunt




                                           - 56 -

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